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New Post 4/22/2007 12:33 AM
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Types fo Strength.... 
Professor Verkoshansky,

I have been a little confused by many definitions (of same things) in strength training terminology. Precisely in fields of terminology of STRENGTH, SPEED and ENDURANCE types of qualities and theirs subgroups.

I will here present to You professor, some of those terminology and definitions of above (fitness) qualities. Those are only fragments from articles...
Article: "Developing Special Strengths"
Written by Louie Simmons

-Maximal Strength
-Strength Endurance
-Speed Strength
-Strength speed
-Explosive Strength
-Accelerating Strength
Article: "Strength Training: Structure, Principles, And Methodology"
Written by Dr. Dietmar Schmidtbleicher

Structural Analysis Of Strength Qualities:
-Maximal Strength
-Absolute Strength
-Speed Strength
   *Starting Strength
   *Explosive Strength:
Article: "The Many Different Types of Strength"
Written by coach Eddie Lomax

-Maximal strength
-Explosive strength
     *Starting strength
     *Acceleration strength
-Strength endurance
-Relative strength
-Absolute limit strength
Book: "Supertraining"
Written by Mel C Siff

-Maximum strength
-relative strength
-speed strength
-explosive strength
     *maximum strength
     *starting strength
     *acceleration strength
-strength endurance

Later in text..."Qualitative Characteristic of strength" author wrote:" Categorization of strength capabilities into four discrete types:

-absolute strength
-speed strength
-explosive strength
-strength endurance....

Some other classification ("The interdependence of the motor qualities of strength, speed and endurance" same book):

-maximum strength
-short-duration endurance
-medium-duration endurance
-long-duration endurance

And later in book charter 7 "Strength training methods",... "Broad classification of the major aims of strength training" autor wrote:"

Strength training:

-Muscular endurance
-Maximal strength

Some other autors have next qualissification:
- Maximum Strength
- Elastics Strength
- Strength Endurance

Please, could you:

1. Give more precise classification of strength types and sub-types ?

2. Also, could you give precise and non-ambiguity meaning  of bellow terminus...?.....Which of them are synonyms ... ?

acceleration strength,
starting strength,
elastics strength
reactive strength (ability)...

Greetings from Serbia!
New Post 4/26/2007 2:34 PM
  Prof. Verkhoshansky
245 posts
1st Level Poster

Re: Types fo Strength.... 

Dear Milan Komatina,

I understand and I fully share your point of view on the importance of the terminology used in the books.

In the fundamental sciences there is a lot of attention to the standardization of the terminology.

For this reason congresses are organized with the attendances of the authors that have introduced definitions or terms. In this congresses the most important experts establish what are the terms and the definitions must be adopted in the future.

Unfortunately, in the theory and methodology of the sport training this practice doesn't exist.

There is also another aspect of this problem. The process of the sport training is very complex and it can be studied in different way depending on the different points of view of the author of the book (training as a pedagogic, physiological or psychologicalprocess). Insofar the terms have always to be reported to the context of affiliation and to the author of the publication.


If the definitions of the terms of my publications that you have quoted me are not enough clear I will try to see them again and to make them clearer in my next publications.


Yuri Verkhoshansky

New Post 5/7/2007 8:30 PM
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Re: Types fo Strength.... 
Modified By 1511146@aruba.it  on 5/11/2007 1:38:33 AM)

Dear Professor Verkhoshansky,

Thank you very much for Your response. I hope that in near future science and practice will be more synchrozied and balanced in using training terminology.  

In the meaning of sport-science terminology, every definition is most clear when are given: by numbers (using numbers) formulated in table (easiest way to consider definition and also to compare with other definition from similar or same fields)

If are definitions given by: numbers, short textual descriptions  and sorted in TABLE we will have more advantages: in easier using and understanding sports science (for example training methods)  in computer based sport training programming

In contest of my previous post, If we try to avoid using synonyms of terms and if we want that every meaning have only one terms, and vice versa, one of the solutions could be described in the following way:












Training sessions / Week

3 - 6

3 – 6

3 - 6

2 - 4

Exercises / Train. session

1 - 3

1 - 3

3 - 5

1 - 3

Sets / Exercise




Reps / Set

1 – 5

1 – 5

5 - 10

10 - 20

Load (% of 1RM)

80 – 100 %

70 – 100 %

15 – 30 %

50 – 70%

Rest between sets

2 – 6 min

2 – 6 min

1.5 – 2 min

1 – 3 min

Duration (sec/set)

5 – 10 sec

1 – 5 sec

5 – 20 sec

20 – 30 sec






Stimulation of functional hypertrophy

Increase in muscle density

Stimulation of functional hypertrophy


Active recovery


Improved lactic acid tolerance

Improved capilarization


This is only an example which I made, not a finally form.

Professor Verkhoshansky, please, I will appreciate Your comments, suggestion, and of course, critique.


Thank You very much,

Milan Komatina,



[The post has been edited by web administrator because of technical problems]

New Post 5/11/2007 9:25 AM
  Prof. Verkhoshansky
245 posts
1st Level Poster

Re: Types fo Strength.... 

Dear Milan Komatina,

I should ask you for what kind of sport you create the table of strength training methods.

For Weightlifting,  Bodybuilding, Fitness, or for Olympic disciplines? All these types of sport have different training objectives and should need appropriate tables of strength training methods.


If your table has referred to Olympic sport athletes I would like to expose you the following considerations


1.      What is “strength speed” and “speed strength”? What is “strength endurance”?

I think is better to use more concrete parameter for the training effect names.


Maximal strength (Po) - characterizes the greatest magnitude of effort which the athlete can display when there is unlimited time. Maximal strength is most need when the movement is executed  with great external resistance. This determines how great the maximum working effort will be / Fmax /.

High-speed strength (Fv) - is displayed in high-speed movements involving small external resistance.

Explosive strength  - is characterizes  by the athlete’s  ability to display powerful efforts in the shortest amount of time. Explosive strength is determined by the relation of Fmax / tmax.

Starting strength  - characterizes the ability of athlete to produce rapid increase in external force at the beginning of the muscle tension produced by muscles. It is measured by the tangent to the curve F /t.

Reactive ability - characterizes the specific quality of nervous-muscle system to display a  powerful  explosive effort  immediately  after sharp mechanical stretching of muscles by an external force. This regime is characterized by  the fast  switching of  the muscles  from eccentric work to concentric producing a maximal dynamic load at this moment. An example of this would  be the take-off in jumping.

Local muscular endurance - is a characterized by  the  ability of separate groups of muscles and physiological systems of the body to ensured the motor activity while displaying the necessary  level of efforts for e long period of time and with no decrease in their  working effect.

Maximal anaerobic power - is the ability of the body to effectively execute the short-term  (10-15 sec) work at maximum (utmost) capacity in cyclic or repeated regimes.



2. The number of training sessions in a week cannot be standard. The strength training is only one part of complex training process. The athletes need to increase different parameters together and for this reason the number of training sessions in a week depend from the general strategy of training loads temporal organisation.


My vision of strength methods table for Olympic sport athletes is in the book “Special strength training: a practical manual for coaches”.


The primary emphasis of the training influence of various ways of the resistance exercises using


Weight in % of maximal

Number of rep.

Number of sets

Rest between sets

Primary emphasis of the training influence



4 -8


Maximal strength; explosive strength with large external resistance



4 -8


Explosive strength with  moderate external  resistance



3 -6


Maximal strength with an increase in muscle mass



4 -6        


Speed of movements and  explosive strength with small external resistance            



2- 4        


Local muscular endurance with large external  resistance        



2- 4         


Local muscular endurance with small external resistance       



3- 5            


Quickness and frequency of  non loaded  movements         


Yuri Verkhoshansky

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